In greenhouse, the F1 and F2 hybrids derived from glufosinateresistant transgenic rice (Y0003 and 991) and Malaysian weedy rice or Anhui weedy rice were backcrossed with corresponding weedy rice to obtain backcross generations. And the seed setting rates of the backcross were counted. The proportions of plants carrying the glufosinateresistance gene in F1 or F2 hybrids and the backcross generation were calculated. In order to comprehensively assess the risk of gene flow from glufosinateresistant rice to weedy rice, the fitness of hybrid and backcross generations were observed. The results showed that the hybrid generations were able to backcross with corresponding weedy rice with seed setting rates from 15% to 60%. The seeds from reciprocal hybrid F1 generation showed favorable glufosinateresistance, but F2 and backcross generations showed a normal 3∶1 and 1∶1 Mendelian segregation with glufosinate selection. The fitness of hybrid and backcross generations didn′t differ obviously from that of their corresponding weedy rice. Most hybrid generations displayed similar fitness with backcross generations, but some hybrid generations were lower than backcross generations in fitness. All above results indicate that hybrids and backcross generations of two weedy rice carrying glufosinateresistance genes of Y0003 and 991 could survive under benign conditions without herbicide selection.
ZUO Jiao,QIANG Sheng,SONG Xiao-ling* . Fitness of Progenies Between Transgenic Rice and Weedy Rice under Greenhouse Conditions[J]. , 2010, 24(6): 608-616 .
Chevre A M, Eber F, Baranger A, et al. Gene flow from transgenic crops. Nature, 1997, 389: 924.
Madsen K H, Valverde B E, Jensen J E. Risk assessment of herbicide-resistant crops: A Latin American perspective using rice (Oryza sativa) as a model. Weed Technol, 2002, 16: 215-223.
Chapman M A, Burke J M. Letting the gene out of the bottle: The population genetics of genetically modified crops. New Phytol, 2006, 170: 429-443.
Oka H I, Chang W T. Hybrid swarms between wild and cultivated rice species Oryza perennis and O. sativa. Evolution, 1961, 15: 418-430.
Langevin S A, Clay K, Grace J. The incidence and effects of hybridization between cultivated rice and its related weed red rice (Oryza sativa L.). Evolution, 1990, 44: 1000-1008.
Noldin J A, Yokoyama S, Antunes P, et al. Outcrossing potential of glufosinate-resistant rice to red rice. Planta Daninha, 2002, 20(2): 243-251.
Zhang N Y, Linscombe S, Oard J. Out-crossing frequency and genetic analysis of hybrids between transgenic glufosinate herbicide-resistant rice and the weed, red rice. Euphytica, 2003, 130(1): 35-45.
Zhang W Q, Linscombe S D, Webster E, et al. Risk assessment of the transfer of imazethapyr herbicide tolerance from Clearfield rice to red rice (Oryza sativa). Euphytica, 2006, 152: 75-86.
Shivrain V K, Burgos N R, Anders M M, et al. Gene flow between ClearfieldTM rice and red rice.Mol Breeding, 2007, 26: 349-356.
Messeguer J, Marfa V, Catala M M, et al. A field study of pollen-mediated gene flow from Mediterranean GM rice to conventional rice and the red rice weed. Mol Breeding, 2004, 13: 103-112.
Chen L J, Lee D S, Song Z P, et al. Gene flow from cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) to its weedy and wild relatives. Ann Bot, 2004, 93: 67-73.
Mercer K L, Andow D A, Wyse D L, et al. Stress and domestication traits increase the relative fitness of crop wild hybrids in sunflower. Ecol Lett, 2007, 10: 383-393.
Endler J A. Geographic Variation, Speciation and Clines. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1977.
Gueritaine G, Sester M, Eber F, et al. Fitness of backcross six of hybrids between transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum). Mol Ecol, 2002, 11: 1419-1426.
Lu B R, Snow A A. Gene flow from genetically modified rice and its environmental consequences. BioScience, 2005, 55(8): 669-678.
Oard J, Cohn M A, Linscombe S, et al. Field evaluation of seed prodution, shattering, and dormancy in hybrid populations of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) and the weed, red rice (Oryza sativa). Plant Sci, 2000, 157(1): 13-22.
Shivrain V K, Burgos N R, Gealy D R, et al. Gene flow from weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) to cultivated rice and fitness of hybrids. Pest Manag Sci, 2009, 65: 1124-1129.
Cao Q J, Xia H, Yang X, et al. Performance of hybrids between weedy rice and insect-resistant transgenic rice under field experiments: Implication for environmental biosafety assessment. J Int Plant Biol, 2009, 51: 1138-1148.
Song Z P, Lu B R, Wang B, et al. Fitness estimation through performance comparison of F1 hybrids with their parental species Oryza rufipogon and O. sativa. Ann Bot, 2004, 93: 311-316.
Rice W R. Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Evolution, 1989, 43: 223-225.
Jenczewski E, Ronfort J, Chévre A M. Crop-to-wild gene flow, introgression and possible fitness effects of transgenes. Environ Biosafety Res, 2003, 2: 9-24.
Sankula S, Braverman M P, Orrd J H. Genetic analysis of glufosinate resistance in crosses between transformed rice (Oryza sativa) and red rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Technol, 1998, 12: 209-214.
Jiang J, Linscombe S D, Wang J L, et al. High efficiency transformation of U.S. rice lines from mature seed derived calli and segregation of glufosinate resistance under field conditions. Crop Sci, 2000, 40: 1729-1741.
Arriola P E, Ellstrand N C. Fitness of interspecific hybrids in the genus Sorghum: Persistence of crop genes in wild populations. Ecol Appl, 1997, 7: 512-518.
Baker H G. The evolution of weeds. Ann Rev Ecol Syst, 1974, 5: 1-24.
强胜. 杂草学. 北京: 中国农业出版社, 2001: 2.
Waser N M, Price M V. Optimal outcrossing in Ipomopsis aggregate, seed set and offspring fitness. Evolution, 1989, 43: 1097-1109.
Byers D L. Effect of cross proximity on progeny fitness in a rare and a common species of Eupatorium (Asteraceae). Am J Bot, 1998, 85(5): 644-653.
Emms S K, Arnold M L. The effect of habitat on parental and hybrid fitness: Transplant experiments with Louisiana irises. Evolution, 1997, 51: 1112-1119.
Vacher C, Weis A E, Hermann D. Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape (Brassica rapa). Theor Appl Genet, 2004, 109: 806-814.
Brock M T, Galen C. Drought tolerance in the alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), its exotic congener T. officinale, and interspecific hybrids under natural and experimental conditions. Am J Bot, 2005, 92: 1311-1321.
Campbell L G, Snow A A. Competition alters life history and increase the relative fecundity of crop wild radish hybrids (Raphanus spp.). New Phytol, 2007, 173: 648-660.
Campbell D R, Waser N M. Genotype by environment interaction and the fitness of plant hybrids in the wild. Evolution, 2001, 55: 669-676.
Johnston J A, Grise D J, Donovan L A, et al. Environment-dependent performance and fitness of Iris brevicaulis, I. fulva (Iridaceae), and hybrids. Am J Bot, 2001, 88: 933-938.
Pertl M, Hauser T P, Damgaard C, et al. Male fitness of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), weedy B. rapa and their F1 hybrids when pollinating B. rapa seeds. Heredity, 2002, 89: 212-218.
Johannessen M M, Andersen B A, Jφrgensen R B. Competition affects gene flow from oilseed rape (♀) to Brassica rapa (♂). Heredity, 2006, 96: 360-367.
Whitney K D, Randell R A, Rieseberg L H. Adaptive introgression of herbivore resistance traits in weedy sunflower Helianthus annuus. Am Nat, 2006, 167: 794-807.